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SystemDrive This returns a DictionaryEntry object with. Adding this to a string will give the wrong result PS C: Concatenating it with a string is closer, but still wrong: From until , there was no rule restricting the languages in which the songs could be sung.
The language restriction continued until , when performers were again allowed to sing in any language they wished.
In , the EBU decided to revert to the national language restriction. In the rule was changed again to allow the choice of language once more, which resulted in 12 out of 23 countries, including the United Kingdom, singing in English that year.
In the Dutch entry, " Amambanda ", was sung partly in English and partly in an artificial language. Since the language rule was abolished in , songs in English have become increasingly more common.
In all but three out of 36 semi-finalists had songs in English, with only two Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia performing songs in their native languages, as Austria sent a song in French.
In the final, all but three out of 26 contestants had songs in English. The voting system used in the contest has changed over the years.
The current system has been in place since , and is a positional voting system. Each country awards two sets of 12, 10, 8—1 points to their 10 favourite songs: The experiment was a success,  and from onwards all countries were encouraged to use televoting wherever possible.
Back-up juries are still used by each country, in the event of a televoting failure. Nowadays members of the public may also vote by SMS, in addition to televoting.
In every case, every country cannot vote for its own song  From , the public may also vote via a mobile app. The current method for ranking entries, introduced in , is to sum together the points calculated from the telephone vote and the jury separately.
Since the voting has been presided over by the EBU scrutineer , who is responsible for ensuring that all points are allocated correctly and in turn.
According to one study of Eurovision voting patterns , certain countries tend to form "clusters" or "cliques" by frequently voting in the same way.
After the interval act is over, when all the points have been calculated, the presenter s of the show call upon each voting country in turn to invite them to announce the results of their vote.
Prior to the announcements were made over telephone lines ; with the audio being piped into the auditorium for the audience to hear, and over the television transmission.
However, since and including the announcements have been presented visually. Often the opportunity is taken by each country to show their spokesperson standing in front of a backdrop which includes a famous place in that country.
For example, the French spokesperson might be seen standing in front of the Eiffel Tower or an Italian presenter might be seen with the Colosseum in the background.
From to , the participating countries were called in reverse order of the presentation of their songs, and from to , they were called in the same order in which their songs had been presented except for In , the countries were called in alphabetical order according to their ISO codes.
Between and , like in , a separate draw was held to determine the order in which countries would present their votes. From to , each country sent two jurors, who were present at the contest venue though the juries in were locked away in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle and announced their votes as the camera was trained on them.
In one of the Swiss jurors made a great show of presenting his votes with flamboyant gestures. This system was retired the next year.
In no public votes were presented: In  the EBU decided to save time during the broadcast—much of which had been taken up with the announcement of every single point—because there was an ever-increasing number of countries voting.
Since then, votes from 1 to 7 from each country have been displayed automatically on screen and the remaining points 8, 10 and 12 are read out in ascending order by the spokesperson, culminating with the maximum 12 points.
For this reason, the expression douze points when the host or spokesperson states the top score in French is popularly associated with the contest throughout the continent.
In addition, only the jury points are announced by country. The televoting results are announced in aggregate, from lowest-scoring country to highest.
After the winner has been announced, the televoting points from the country where the contest is watched from are briefly seen on screen.
In , four of the sixteen countries taking part, France, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, all tied for first place with 18 points each.
There was nothing in the rules to decide an outright winner, so all four were declared joint winners. This caused much discontent among most of the other participating countries, and mass walkouts were threatened.
Finland, Norway, Sweden and Portugal did not participate in the Contest as a protest against the results of the previous year.
This prompted the EBU to introduce a tie-break rule. Under the current rules, in the event of more than one country scoring the same total number of points, a count is made of the numbers of countries who awarded points to each of the tied countries, and the one who received points from the most countries is declared the winner.
If the numbers are still tied, it is counted how many sets of maximum points 12 points each country received. If there is still a tie, the numbers of point scores awarded are compared—and then the numbers of 8-point scores, all the way down the list.
In the extremely unlikely event of there then still being a tie for first place, the song performed earliest in the running order is declared the winner.
Since , the same tie-break rule now applies to ties for all places. As of , the only time since when two or more countries have tied for first place on total points alone was in , when France and Sweden both totalled points.
Both France and Sweden had received four sets of 12 points. However, because Sweden had received more sets of point scores, they were declared the winners.
Had the current rule been in play, France would have won instead. Each participating broadcaster is required to broadcast the show in its entirety: The Dutch state broadcaster pulled their broadcast of the final to provide emergency news coverage of a major incident, the Enschede fireworks disaster.
The Albanian performer had visible tattoos, and the Irish song featured a storyline showing vignettes of a homosexual couple. The first edition ever of the Eurovision Song Contest in was broadcast live, but not recorded, so only a sound recording of the radio transmission has survived from the original broadcast.
In late , the EBU had begun archiving all the contests since the first edition in to be finalised before the Contest, for the 60th anniversary.
In , hosted in Paris only a month after the South Lebanon conflict , during the performance of the Israeli entry, the Jordanian broadcaster JRTV suspended the broadcast and showed pictures of flowers.
In , Lebanon intended to participate in the contest. The EBU informed them that such an act would breach the rules of the contest, and Lebanon was subsequently forced to withdraw from the competition.
Their late withdrawal incurred a fine, since they had already confirmed their participation and the deadline had passed. As of [update] , the albums were banned completely from sale.
However, the song text was banned by Eurovision as it was interpreted as criticism against Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin after the Russo-Georgian War the previous year.
When asked to change the lyrics of the song, the Georgian broadcaster GPB withdrew from the contest. The number of countries participating has steadily grown over time, from seven in to over 20 in the late s.
In , twenty-five countries participated in the competition, including, for the first time, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, entering independently due to the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
Because the contest is a live television programme, a reasonable time limit must be imposed on the duration of the show. In recent years the nominal limit has been three hours, with the broadcast occasionally over-running.
Several relegation or qualification systems have been tried to limit the number of countries participating in the contest at one time.
Thus the Contest introduced two new features: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia took part in Kvalifikacija za Millstreet ; and the three former Yugoslav republics, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, qualified for a place in the international final.
Relegation continued in and ;  but in a different pre-selection system was used, in which nearly all the countries participated.
Audio tapes of all the songs were sent to juries in each of the countries some weeks before the television show. These juries selected the songs which would be included in the international broadcast.
One country which failed to qualify in the pre-selection was Germany. As one of the largest financial contributors to the EBU, their non-participation in the contest brought about a funding issue, which the EBU would have to consider.
Since , France , Germany , Spain and United Kingdom have automatically qualified for the final, regardless of their positions on the scoreboard in previous contests, as they are the four biggest financial contributors to the EBU.
On 31 December , it was announced that Italy would compete in the Eurovision Song Contest after a fourteen-year absence and that it would also automatically qualify for the final, joining the other four qualifiers to become the "Big Five", considered by some to be a controversial decision.
Turkey withdrew from the Contest with the status of the "Big Five" being one of the reasons cited. The only country in the Big 5 since that has never finished last in the finals is Italy.
Some measures have been taken by the EU to give the Big 5 contestants a similar status to those competing at the semi-finals, such as broadcasting their acts in the semi-final interval.
From to , countries qualified for each contest based on the average of their points totals for their entries over the previous five years.
This led the EBU to create what was hoped would be a more permanent solution to the problem. A qualification round, known as the semi-final, was introduced for the Contest.
The highest-placed songs from the semi-final qualified for the grand final, while the lower-placed songs were eliminated. From to , the semi-final programme was held on the Thursday of Eurovision Week.
At the 50th annual meeting of the EBU reference group in September , it was decided that, with still more nations entering, starting from the contest onwards two semi-finals would be held,  from each of which one could qualify for the final.
The only countries which automatically qualify for the grand final are the host country and the Big Five: In each of the semi-finals the voting is conducted among those countries which participate in that semi-final.
With regard to the automatic grand final qualifiers, who do not participate in the semi-finals, a draw is conducted to determine in which semi-final each of them will be allowed to vote.
In contrast, every participating country in a particular year may vote in the Saturday grand final — whether their song qualified for the final or not.
The ten countries which receive the most votes in each semi-final qualify for the grand final. They are announced by the presenters in English and French, in a random order.
As of [update] , Ireland holds the record for the highest number of wins, having won the contest seven times. Sweden is second with six wins.
France , Luxembourg and the United Kingdom are joint third with five wins each. The Netherlands and Israel both hold four victories. Denmark and Norway have both won thrice, six countries have won twice, 12 countries have won once, and 24 countries have participated but never won.
The United Kingdom holds the record for the highest number of runner-up placings, coming in second on no less than 15 occasions as of [update].
Germany, Russia, France, Spain and Ireland have four runner-up entries. Norway holds the record for finishing in last place in the final the most times: The early years of the contest saw many wins for "traditional" Eurovision countries: France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
However, the success of these countries has declined in recent decades; the Netherlands last won in ; France, in ; and Luxembourg, in Luxembourg last entered the contest in The first years of the 21st century produced numerous first-time winners, from both "new" and long-serving countries who had previously entered numerous times but without victories.
Every year from to inclusive, a country won for its first time. Estonia was the first post-Soviet country to win the competition in In , Turkey won for the first time.
In , Greece won for the first time, 15 years after the last Southern European country won, i. Italy in ; overall the South of Europe won the competition only six times seven if Serbia is included.
Ukraine , on the other hand, did not have to wait so long, winning with only their second entry in The contest was won by Russia in Serbia won the very first year it entered as an independent state, in , with the Serbian-language ballad " Molitva ".
Cyprus now holds this record, with 35 years without a win, achieving their highest score, Second, in , and Malta is the most successful country without a win, achieving two-second places and two third places.
In , Norway won the contest with points — Alexander Rybak held the winning title with his song " Fairytale ". His outstanding performance meant he had the highest total in the history of the competition, becoming the first competitor to score or more points, including 16 maximum scores.
This feat was emulated in , when Sweden won with points, but with a new record of 18 maximum scores. Russia placed second with points, becoming the first country to score more than points without winning.
In , the scoring system was changed, which meant that it was much easier to achieve over points — in fact, the winner — Jamala of Ukraine , achieved points, and all of top 9 scored or more points, and 25 of the 26 positions got their highest points ever.
However, had Portugal won under the previous voting system, it would still have had the highest total ever, with points, becoming the first competitor to score or more points, and would have set a new record of 20 maximum scores, beating Norway and Sweden, respectively.
In , Ukraine did not win either the jury vote or the televote, but won the contest with the highest combined vote. The televote was won by Russia and the jury vote by Australia.
In , eventual winner Israel won the televote but only came in third with the jury vote won by Austria. There have been a number of Eurovision artists and groups whose careers were directly launched into the spotlight following their win.
Several other winners were well-known artists who won the contest mid-career after they had already established themselves, including Katrina and the Waves , winners in with " Love Shine a Light ",  Lulu , winner in with " Boom Bang-a-Bang ", and Sandie Shaw , winner in with " Puppet on a String ".
Women have dominated the contest since its inception, either performing solo or as a member of a group on 50 of the 67 winning entries as of [update].
The most recent winner of the contest is Netta Barzilai who won the contest for Israel. The event, entitled Songs of Europe , took place in Mysen , Norway, featuring nearly all the winners of the contest, from to It was hosted by Rolf Kirkvaag and Titten Tei.
In , the EBU had agreed with the Danish broadcaster, DR , to produce a programme to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the contest. The show, entitled Congratulations: A telephone vote was held to determine the most popular Eurovision song of all-time, which was won by the ABBA song " Waterloo " winner for Sweden in The event was hosted by the British commentator for Eurovision, Graham Norton , and the host of the and Contest , Petra Mede.
The contest has been the subject of criticism regarding both its musical and political content. Most recently in and , Russia was heavily booed when it qualified for the final and received high points.
Because the songs play to such a diverse supranational audience with contrasting musical tastes, and countries want to be able to appeal to as many people as possible to gain votes, this has led to the music of the contest being characterised as a "mishmash of power ballads , ethnic rhythms and bubblegum pop ".
A recent study in  presents a new methodological approach which allows an analysis of the whole time-line of the contest from to to investigate collusion and the cluster blocks which have been changing.
It allows the analysis to find collusive associations over periods where the voting scheme is non-homogeneous in the time window chosen, and the results show a changing pattern in the collusive tendencies previously discussed.
The current research into the analysis of the voting patterns has been used in notable sources, such as the Economist, for investigating whether over year periods such collusion is increasing or decreasing.
We [the United Kingdom] are on our own. We had a very good song, a very good singer, we came joint last. Another influential factor is the high proportion of expatriates and ethnic minorities living in certain countries.
Thus voters in countries with larger populations have less power as individuals to influence the result of the contest than those voting in smaller countries.
For example, San Marino holds the same voting power as Russia despite the vast geographic and population differences between them. To try to reduce the effect of voting blocs, national juries were re-introduced alongside televoting in the final in Although many of them used to give their 12 points to the same country each year, like Cyprus and Greece, it has been noticed that factors such as the sets of other high votes received 7, 8 or 10 points and the number of countries giving points to a specific entry, also highly affect the final positions.
Result of such a study are presented in,. An "allocation draw" occurs for the final and the semi-finals with each nation drawing to perform in the first or second half.
The change in procedure was aimed to make the show more exciting and ensure that all contestants had a chance to stand out, preventing entries that are too similar from cancelling each other out.
Position 17 has the most victories, with 7. Positions 25, 26 and 27 have not won either, but there have been very few finals with that many participants.
A number of spin-offs and imitators of the Eurovision Song Contest have been produced over the years, some national and other international.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Annual song competition held among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
For the television exchange which the contest was named after, see Eurovision network. For the most recent contest, see Eurovision Song Contest For the upcoming contest, see Eurovision Song Contest For other uses, see Eurovision disambiguation.
History of the Eurovision Song Contest. List of countries in the Eurovision Song Contest. Entered at least once. Never entered, although eligible to do so.
Entry intended, but later withdrew. Competed as a part of another country, but never as a sovereign country. List of host cities of the Eurovision Song Contest.
Rules of the Eurovision Song Contest. Languages in the Eurovision Song Contest. Voting at the Eurovision Song Contest. Songs of Europe concert.
The collusion between countries in Eurovision to Mutual neglect of score allocations in the Eurovision to Produced using the methods presented in  and  a network of the significant score deviations can be viewed over a time period of interest.
Archived from the original PDF on 28 May Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 8 May Museum of Broadcast Communications.
Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 15 July Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 21 August Daily Mail and General Trust.
In the mids, the members of the European Broadcasting Union set up an ad hoc committee to investigate ways of rallying the countries of Europe round a light entertainment programme.
The idea was approved by the EBU General Assembly in Rome on 19 October , and it was decided that the first "Eurovision Grand Prix" — so baptised, incidentally, by a British journalist — would take place in spring at Lugano, Switzerland.
Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original on 27 June Archived from the original on 26 MayRetrieved 9 August Tonight the first semi-final took place, and casino spiele für party the first six finalists. The contest is considered to wales em trikot a unique opportunity for promoting the host country as a tourist destination. At the 50th annual meeting of the EBU reference group in Septemberit was decided that, with still more nations entering, starting from the contest onwards two semi-finals would be held,  from each of which one could qualify for the final. Also present if desired is a commentator: Archived from the original on 11 August Lake Malawi quoten esc Alle bundesliga vereine Eesti Laul begins. Take the Developer Survey now. Between andlike ina separate draw was held to determine the order in which countries would present their votes. Retrieved 28 January The Albanian performer had visible ran american football, and the Irish song featured a storyline showing vignettes of a homosexual couple.